The Requirements

Saturday, 15. October 2011

Prominent scientists, AM Ampere, Yakobi, MO Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Tesla, AG Stoletov and others known in the history of electrical engineering for its large research and discoveries have also played a large role in creating the first practical designs electrical measuring instruments. Many of the principles underlying the operation of these instruments have survived. The principle of the first electrical measuring instruments was based on the deviation of the needle electric shock. On the basis of this phenomenon Austrian physicist Igor X. Shveyggerom in 1820, was created by current indicator – ‘multiplier’. However, the practical application of this device is complicated by the Earth’s magnetic field have made distortions in the readings. This led Ampere (1821) on the idea of building on the axis of not one but two oppositely magnetized hands.

Thus was born the astatic system used before the last time in the electromagnetic and electrodynamic devices. Only recently, in connection with the development of technology, quality manufacturing magnetic shields astatic (more expensive) devices in our country is greatly reduced. In the 30s of XIX century. were galvanometers designed – more accurate and sensitive instruments to measure current (BS Jacobi, 1839) – and ballistic galvanometers to measure the magnetic flux (X. E.

Land, 1832). In the 50 years were used designed so far precise way to measure – compensation (J. Pogue gendorf, 1841) and bridge (C. Winston, 1843), later – Ballistic (AG Stoletov, 1878).

World Energy

Thursday, 13. October 2011

Since no other scientific problem does not attract such attention, as this problem, and in particular the upcoming climate change. It is believed that the main reason for this change is energy, and energy under means any area of human activity related to energy production and consumption. A significant (78% in 2001) of energy consumption is provided by energy released from fossil fossil fuels (oil, coal and gas), which in turn leads to the release into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2), which has the ability to keep the Earth reflected solar radiation. As a result of accumulation of CO2 and other polyatomic gases, among which the most significant are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO2), is heated the Earth's atmosphere. This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. So, we proposed scheme is simple: people burning fossil fuels, resulting in a warming climate, which could end in disaster.

It follows a recipe to avoid this risk: reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, naturally, at the expense of reductions in consumption of fossil fuels. This simplified approach is already causing real harm to the global economy and can deliver a fatal blow to the economy of those countries that have not yet reached the required for completion of the industrial stage of development of energy consumption, including Russia. The reality is much more complicated. In addition to the greenhouse effect, responsibility for which, of course, rests largely on energy, the planet's climate is influenced a number of natural causes, one of the most important of which include solar activity, volcanic activity, the parameters of the orbit of the Earth, oscillations in the system Atmosphere-Ocean. The correct analysis of the problem coming climate changes and their consequences is possible only in the light of all factors.

In this case, of course, need to be made as clear in the question of how to behave world energy consumption in the near future, whether or not humanity should establish stringent self-restraint in the consumption of energy in order to avoid the catastrophe of global warming. Common classification divides the sources of primary energy in the commercial and noncommercial. World Energy in general throughout the industrial phase of development of society is based primarily on commercial energy resources (more than 90% of total energy consumption in 2001). Although it should be noted that there is a group of countries (the equatorial zone of Africa, Southeast Asia), the large population which maintains its exist almost exclusively by non-commercial energy sources. World Energy, 50s, 60s and early 70s of XX century. characterized by extremely rapid growth in consumption of commercial energy (average growth rate of more than 5%) that the annual rate of growth of world population obnovlyaetsya Our site each day. We look forward to your participation in the development of the site 'Energy and Industry of Russia', with pleasure place your books, news, drawings, journals, term papers, articles, training materials, etc.