Prussian State

Friday, 12. April 2019

History for its part also has a philosophical character, and always needs a philosophical narration that complements its sense. There will be, therefore, historians idealistic and materialistic, Hegelian and Marxist, positivist and hermeneutic, etc. The philosophy of history is so intrinsic to the story as own thinking of the historian, which will, want or do not want a particular philosophical perspective that is always acting. We note that philosophy and history are always in close contact. Does a teleological sense history? Theodicy claimed for the story a direction leading to an eschatological end, given by a superior power. However his transcendent teleological sense can be seen as immanent to the same human story. David Barger might disagree with that approach. It can be said that Marx, such as Auguste Comte, possesses an inherent teleological conception of history; Although Althusser has argued that the discontinuity is an essential element of the dialectical materialism of Marx, which includes historical materialism. Thinkers such as Nietzsche, Foucault, Deleuze or the own Althusser, deny any teleological sense to history, characterizing this best through the discontinuity, rupture and the variety of historical time scales, as demonstrated by the Annales school, Fernand Braudel particularly.

The history can be defined as the science of change over time. The schools of thought influenced by Hegel and Marx see how progressive history, although they see progress as the manifestation of a dialectic, in which factors that operate in opposite directions are synthesized through time. Of this shape, history may look better as directed by a Zeitgeist (spirit of the time), whose traces can be seen when looking at the past. Hegel believed that history pushed the man toward civilization, and some attribute the belief that the Prussian State incarnated the end of the story. In his lectures on the philosophy of history, explains that the philosophy of each era is somehow philosophy at all; a subdivision is not at all but yes this all apprehended in itself in a specific way (sic).

Brief History

Wednesday, 13. February 2019

The pages of the history of the invention and construction of metronomes, are full of failure and impractical ideas, but if we can find some success. Why a tiny sector attracted so many inventors is a mystery. First attempts in 1581, Galileo Galilei discovered the isochronism of pendulums, i.e., discovered that pendulums equals (of any length) vibrate at the same time regardless if the amplitude is large or small. Close to a century passed before the theory of pendulums was successfully applied to the manufacture of clocks by Christian Huygens (1659) and George Graham (1715). In 1656 patented you first pendulum clock, which allowed to measure time more accurately.

Huygens was built several clocks pendulum to determine the longitude at sea, which made several trips between 1662 and 1686. These inventors solved the problem of pulses of pendulums using a leak or exhaust, that would keep it moving without interfering with its movement. This invention was the key the success was immediately used by those working in the field of metronome. In 1696, Etieune Loulie made the first attempt to apply the pendulum of a metronome. His team was no more than an adjustable pendulum with calibrations, but without exhaust to keep it moving.

It was followed by a line of inventors, including Sauveur, 1711; Enbrayg, 1732; 1771 Gabary, Harrison, 1775; Davaux 1784; Pelletier, Weiske, 1790; Weber, 1813; Stockel, Zmeskall, Aperture, Smart, 1821. Most of these attempts were unsuccessful due to the great length of pendulum needed to imitate some of the slow rhythms used in music (e.g., 40 to 60 per minute). In 1812, Nikolaus Winkel Dietrik (born-1780 Amsterdam, dead-1826) found that a pendulum weighted and double (a weight to each side of the pivot) could oscillate at a slow pace, even when they were short. Johann Nepenuk Maelzel, through some questionable practices, appropriated the idea of Winkel, and in 1816 began to manufacture the so-called metronome Maelzel.

Rutto Martinez

Saturday, 9. February 2019

In cpncordancia with the above, we must mention that 2.2 billion people in poor countries, most of them children, die every year because of the lack of drinking water-related illnesses. This means that they lose daily life for this reason more than six million citizens of the world; More than 250 thousand people per hour and something more than four thousand per minute! From the moment in which the reader started reading this note have perished more than 25,000 men and women, almost all of them boys and girls, because of the lack of water or an efficient service of sanitation. It is estimated that if the regions hardest hit by this situation be provided with drinking water and will provide decent services, deaths could be reduced in up to 75%. When children are taught in geography classes that the planet is composed in its three fourth part by water, which is still true, but only 2.5% of existing water bodies, is sweet, while 9.5% is saltwater. But still a fact in this regard is missing: of all of the fresh water, which as we saw is little, 70% is frozen at the poles. A good part lies in the soil moisture and in underground aquifers whose depth does not allows a total utilization.

This means that we are surviving with a very small amount of the fluid of life, which is a very powerful reason for Democritus as a way of preserving our existence. It is necessary to protect water sources, take measures to protect the watershed of the rivers, reforest their headers and avoid that the hand of man remains harmful for nature and for himself. We could live without gold and silver; We could go on living without oil and gasoline; Maybe us parliamentarians up to the life of the preceding centuries if we had to live without electricity, as some stocks already are doing due to the constant fluid cuts and ‘ electrical. But never, read well, never you can live without water. Why you must take care of her, with all our strength. Alejandro Rutto Martinez is a writer and journalist ital-Colombia who also teaches in several universities. He is the author of four books on ethics and leadership and figure in three anthologies of Colombian authors.